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Francis Garden - 1878 - Table of contents

Diccionario filosófico
Complete edition

Diccionario de Filosofía
Brief definition of the most important concepts of philosophy.


A Dictionary of English Philosophical Terms Francis Garden

Vocabulary of Philosophy, Psychological, Ethical, Metaphysical
William Fleming

Biografías y semblanzas Biographical references and lives of philosophers

Brief introduction to the thought of Ortega y Gasset

History of Philosophy Summaries

Historia de la Filosofía
Explanation of the thought of the great philosophers; summaries, exercises...

Historia de la Filosofía
Digital edition of the History of Philosophy by Jaime Balmes

Historia de la Filosofía
Digital edition of the History of Philosophy by Zeferino González

Vidas, opiniones y sentencias de los filósofos más ilustres
Complete digital edition of the work of Diogenes Laertius

Compendio de las vidas de los filósofos antiguos

A brief history of Greek Philosophy
B. C. Burt


A Short History of Philosophy





Dualism. This title may be given to the recognition of two counter-elements as the constituents of any given effect. It is oftenest used, however, to denote either the leading principle of Persian religion, that the universe is governed by two contrasted beings, Ormuzd and Ahrimanes, the one the god of light and of goodness, the other that of darkness and evil; or else that of much ancient philosophy, which assigned two independent elements to the production of the universe, mind and matter.


The former is considered by some to be referred to and protested against in Isaiah XIV. 7: "I form the light, and create darkness: I make peace, and create evil: I the Lord do all these things." Dualism, however, seems so plausible an explanation of the perplexities around us, that it long held its ground, appeared less or more in the leading forms of Gnosticism, and finally became the leading characteristic of Manicheism.

Philosophical dualism is equally opposed to a right faith in God with religions, for it recognises existence independent of Him, without which the universe could not have come into being.



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