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Diccionario filosófico
Voltaire. Complete edition.


Diccionario de Filosofía

Brief definition of the most important concepts of philosophy.


 A Dictionary of English Philosophical Terms  Francis Garden


Biografías y semblanzas  Biographical references and lives of philosophers.


Brief introduction to the thought of Ortega y Gasset


History of Philosophy Summaries


Historia de la Filosofía

Explanation of the thought of the great philosophers; summaries, exercises... 


Historia de la Filosofía

Digital edition of the History of Philosophy by Jaime Balmes


Historia de la Filosofía

 Digital edition of the History of Philosophy by Zeferino González


Vidas, opiniones y sentencias de los filósofos más ilustres

 Complete digital edition of the work of Diogenes Laertius

Compendio de las vidas de los filósofos antiguos



Introductory Paragraph

Early Ionic Natural Philosophers

The Pythagoreans

The Eleatics


Later Natural Philosophers

General Character of the First Period in the History of Greek Philosophy

The Sophist


The Followers of Socrates

The Lesser Socratics

Plato. Life. Works

Plato. Philosophy

The Disciples of Plato

The Old Academy

Aristotle: Life and works

Aristotle: Theory of Knowledge

Aristotle: Metaphysics

Aristotle: Physics

Aristotle: Psychology

Aristotle: Practical Philosophy

Aristotle: Rhetoric and Poetic

Aristotle: Sources

Aristotle: Unity of Plato and Aristotle

Aristotle: result

The Peripatetic School

Three Leading Post-Aristotelian Schools

The Stoics and Stoicism

The Epicureans and Epicureanism

The Sceptics

The Common Ground of the Stoics, Epicureans, and Sceptics

Philosophy in Rome: Eclecticism

The Later Peripatetics

The Later Academics

The Later Stoics

General Character of the Second Period

Standpoint and Schools of the Third and Latest Period of Greek Philosophy

Jewish-Alexandrian School


The Eclectic Platonist

Neo-Platonism. Plotinus

Neo-Platonism. Porphyry. Jamblichus

Neo-Platonism. Proclus




B. C. BURT (1852-1915) - Table of contents                        




§ 23 - Later Academics


  Two Eclectic Academicians require to be noticed here: Philo of Larissa in Thessaly, who succeeded Clitomachus and was at one time teacher of Cicero, and Antiochus of Ascalon, a pupil of Philo, and at one time head of the Academy. These men flourished in the beginning of the first century B.C. They repudiated the Middle and New Academics, and regarded themselves as true Academicians.

Philo of Larissa

Philo would accept neither the Sceptical, nor its opposite, the Stoical, theory of cognition. He advocated a doctrine of probability, or, rather, of a kind of conviction more firm than that resting on probability and yet not reaching perfect certainty; what might, perhaps, in current phrases of to-day be termed "moral certainty," "practical conviction," "intuition". His test of truth in ideas was, in other words, the self-evidence that belongs, or is supposed to belong, particularly to ideas of the moral consciousness.

Antiochus of Ascalon

Antiochus, going a step further, denied that the moral consciousness could be satisfied with mere probability; and, accordingly, attempted to refute the Sceptical theory of cognition. He thought that the senses are, when in a healthy condition, trustworthy, that, though suspension of judgment might be necessary in certain individual cases, it is not always required, and that the Sceptical theory was self-contradictory in its conviction of the impossibility of conviction, and in distinguishing between truth and error, and at the same time practically denying the distinction. In physics he agreed essentially with the Stoics. In ethics he held to a modified Stoicism and was in close sympathy with the Old Academy, placing me goods and virtues of the body along with those of the soul, among the perfect goods and virtues. He is, however, chargeable with what, in view of this, is an inconsistency, viz., the drawing a broad line of distinction between the wise and unwise. He was at one time teacher of Cicero, and of Varro, the great Roman scholar.



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