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Diccionario filosófico
Voltaire. Complete edition.


Diccionario de Filosofía

Brief definition of the most important concepts of philosophy.


 A Dictionary of English Philosophical Terms  Francis Garden


Biografías y semblanzas  Biographical references and lives of philosophers.


Brief introduction to the thought of Ortega y Gasset


History of Philosophy Summaries


Historia de la Filosofía

Explanation of the thought of the great philosophers; summaries, exercises... 


Historia de la Filosofía

Digital edition of the History of Philosophy by Jaime Balmes


Historia de la Filosofía

 Digital edition of the History of Philosophy by Zeferino González


Vidas, opiniones y sentencias de los filósofos más ilustres

 Complete digital edition of the work of Diogenes Laertius

Compendio de las vidas de los filósofos antiguos



Introductory Paragraph

Early Ionic Natural Philosophers

The Pythagoreans

The Eleatics


Later Natural Philosophers

General Character of the First Period in the History of Greek Philosophy

The Sophist


The Followers of Socrates

The Lesser Socratics

Plato. Life. Works

Plato. Philosophy

The Disciples of Plato

The Old Academy

Aristotle: Life and works

Aristotle: Theory of Knowledge

Aristotle: Metaphysics

Aristotle: Physics

Aristotle: Psychology

Aristotle: Practical Philosophy

Aristotle: Rhetoric and Poetic

Aristotle: Sources

Aristotle: Unity of Plato and Aristotle

Aristotle: result

The Peripatetic School

Three Leading Post-Aristotelian Schools

The Stoics and Stoicism

The Epicureans and Epicureanism

The Sceptics

The Common Ground of the Stoics, Epicureans, and Sceptics

Philosophy in Rome: Eclecticism

The Later Peripatetics

The Later Academics

The Later Stoics

General Character of the Second Period

Standpoint and Schools of the Third and Latest Period of Greek Philosophy

Jewish-Alexandrian School


The Eclectic Platonist

Neo-Platonism. Plotinus

Neo-Platonism. Porphyry. Jamblichus

Neo-Platonism. Proclus




B. C. BURT (1852-1915) - Table of contents                        




§ 26 - Standpoint and Schools of the Third and Latest Period in Greek Philosophy

 As a matter of fact it was just this supra-rationalism (and hence supra-naturalism) that became the standpoint of the thinkers and schools of the latest period of Greek thought. Such a standpoint was in part involved even in the common, non-philosophical consciousness of the time, —one century B.C. and several centuries afterwards—,  which was filled with (supposed) intimations of and with aspirations towards the supra-natural: belief in magic, the existence of "dæmons," a prophetic character in dreams, and, of course, in the immortality of the soul, was rife(1); and it was but natural that an attempt should be made to find a real warrant, a philosophical basis, for such intimations and aspirations. It was natural also that such basis and warrant should, first of all, be looked for in systems of philosophy already in existence. As a matter of fact, it was found particularly in the systems of the Pythagoreans, Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics; and certain systems arose that were little more than professed rehabilitations of these systems, and having in common with one another, not only the same general aim but many doctrines, adopted from these systems. To the schools thus arising have been applied the names, Alexandrian, or Jewish-Alexandrian (Platonic and Aristotelian), Neo-Pythagorean, Eclectic-Platonic, Neo-Platonic, etc.


(1) See an interesting discussion on this point in A. W. Benn's The Greek Philosophers, Vol. II. Ch. 4.



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