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Diccionario filosófico
Voltaire. Complete edition.


Diccionario de Filosofía

Brief definition of the most important concepts of philosophy.


 A Dictionary of English Philosophical Terms  Francis Garden


Biografías y semblanzas  Biographical references and lives of philosophers.


Brief introduction to the thought of Ortega y Gasset


History of Philosophy Summaries


Historia de la Filosofía

Explanation of the thought of the great philosophers; summaries, exercises... 


Historia de la Filosofía

Digital edition of the History of Philosophy by Jaime Balmes


Historia de la Filosofía

 Digital edition of the History of Philosophy by Zeferino González


Vidas, opiniones y sentencias de los filósofos más ilustres

 Complete digital edition of the work of Diogenes Laertius

Compendio de las vidas de los filósofos antiguos



Introductory Paragraph

Early Ionic Natural Philosophers

The Pythagoreans

The Eleatics


Later Natural Philosophers

General Character of the First Period in the History of Greek Philosophy

The Sophist


The Followers of Socrates

The Lesser Socratics

Plato. Life. Works

Plato. Philosophy

The Disciples of Plato

The Old Academy

Aristotle: Life and works

Aristotle: Theory of Knowledge

Aristotle: Metaphysics

Aristotle: Physics

Aristotle: Psychology

Aristotle: Practical Philosophy

Aristotle: Rhetoric and Poetic

Aristotle: Sources

Aristotle: Unity of Plato and Aristotle

Aristotle: result

The Peripatetic School

Three Leading Post-Aristotelian Schools

The Stoics and Stoicism

The Epicureans and Epicureanism

The Sceptics

The Common Ground of the Stoics, Epicureans, and Sceptics

Philosophy in Rome: Eclecticism

The Later Peripatetics

The Later Academics

The Later Stoics

General Character of the Second Period

Standpoint and Schools of the Third and Latest Period of Greek Philosophy

Jewish-Alexandrian School


The Eclectic Platonist

Neo-Platonism. Plotinus

Neo-Platonism. Porphyry. Jamblichus

Neo-Platonism. Proclus




B. C. BURT (1852-1915) - Table of contents                        




§ 30 - Neo-Platonism

Porphyry and Other Commentators


 Mention may be made of Porphyry, the pupil and biographer of Plotinus, whose right to a place in the history of philosophy seems to rest chiefly upon his services in diffusing the opinions of Plotinus, and in expounding in an attractive manner writings of Plato and Aristotle, particularly portions of the Organon of the latter. He taught piety and asceticism, and inclined to theurgy.—Three other important commentators on Aristotle are Themistius (fourth century A.D.), Simplicius, and Philoponus (sixth century A.D.).


Jamblichus (fl. 306-337), a pupil of Porphyry, "attempted a speculative justification of superstition. He imitated Pythagoras more than Plato, his philosophy resting rather on mystical speculations with numbers than on Platonic ideas. In his system not only did all the gods of the Greeks and Orientals (excepting the Christian God) and the gods of Plotinus find a place, but he also took a quite peculiar pleasure in adding to the number of superior divinities from the resources of his own fancy" (1). Above even the One of Plotinus, Jamblichus supposes an unknowable essence. Below the One are the intelligible world, the world of thinking beings, including Nous, Power, and Demiurge (Creator). Next in rank is a triplicity of souls, and last the sense-world. Jamblichus blended with theology Neo-Pythagorean number-speculation. He defended image-worship, theurgy, and prophecy. His ethical creed is contained in the idea, held by Plotinus and Porphyry, of purification. He is said to have been the intellectual ideal of Proclus, the last great thinker of the school of the Neo-Platonists and the last great mind in the history of Greek speculation.


(1) Ueberweg.



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