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Diccionario filosófico
Voltaire. Complete edition.


Diccionario de Filosofía

Brief definition of the most important concepts of philosophy.


 A Dictionary of English Philosophical Terms  Francis Garden


Biografías y semblanzas  Biographical references and lives of philosophers.


Brief introduction to the thought of Ortega y Gasset


History of Philosophy Summaries


Historia de la Filosofía

Explanation of the thought of the great philosophers; summaries, exercises... 


Historia de la Filosofía

Digital edition of the History of Philosophy by Jaime Balmes


Historia de la Filosofía

 Digital edition of the History of Philosophy by Zeferino González


Vidas, opiniones y sentencias de los filósofos más ilustres

 Complete digital edition of the work of Diogenes Laertius

Compendio de las vidas de los filósofos antiguos



Introductory Paragraph

Early Ionic Natural Philosophers

The Pythagoreans

The Eleatics


Later Natural Philosophers

General Character of the First Period in the History of Greek Philosophy

The Sophist


The Followers of Socrates

The Lesser Socratics

Plato. Life. Works

Plato. Philosophy

The Disciples of Plato

The Old Academy

Aristotle: Life and works

Aristotle: Theory of Knowledge

Aristotle: Metaphysics

Aristotle: Physics

Aristotle: Psychology

Aristotle: Practical Philosophy

Aristotle: Rhetoric and Poetic

Aristotle: Sources

Aristotle: Unity of Plato and Aristotle

Aristotle: result

The Peripatetic School

Three Leading Post-Aristotelian Schools

The Stoics and Stoicism

The Epicureans and Epicureanism

The Sceptics

The Common Ground of the Stoics, Epicureans, and Sceptics

Philosophy in Rome: Eclecticism

The Later Peripatetics

The Later Academics

The Later Stoics

General Character of the Second Period

Standpoint and Schools of the Third and Latest Period of Greek Philosophy

Jewish-Alexandrian School


The Eclectic Platonist

Neo-Platonism. Plotinus

Neo-Platonism. Porphyry. Jamblichus

Neo-Platonism. Proclus




B. C. BURT (1852-1915) - Table of contents                        




§ 6 - General Character of the First Period in the History of Greek Philosophy

 We have now, as will presently appear, finished the first great epoch in the history of Greek philosophy. Before going further we must briefly sum up its characteristics. As to subject-matter, thought has in this epoch been occupied chiefly with external nature, —man and the supernatural receiving but little consideration. As to its method, it has been speculative, hypothetical, and deductive rather than observational, inductive, "scientific" —rather than because, in any case, something must be "given" or assumed at the start, and where this is true, there is room for rough induction at least. The greatest achievement in method is, doubtless the "dialectic" of the Eleatics and the Heraclitic "unity of opposites," which are "possessions for all time". Of these we shall hear again, farther on. Finally, as to the general attitude of thought in this epoch, there has been a change from simple unsophisticated confidence in the power of the mind to know nature to a kind of scepticism, —scepticism, indeed, not with reference to the scope of reflection but with reference to sense-perception. This scepticism reached its highest degree in the Atomists, with whom even the power of thought reached the minimum, i.e., the power to know just the "void," "atoms," and the motion of atoms. This seems to be the natural consequence of regarding reality as external to mind, and, viewed as such, may be considered one of the best lessons to be gathered from the study of very early Greek speculation. A higher thought, the obverse of this, is virtually contained in the theory of Anaxagoras, the reality and unity of all things in mind.



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