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Diccionario filosófico
Voltaire. Complete edition.


Diccionario de Filosofía

Brief definition of the most important concepts of philosophy.


 A Dictionary of English Philosophical Terms  Francis Garden


Biografías y semblanzas  Biographical references and lives of philosophers.


Brief introduction to the thought of Ortega y Gasset


History of Philosophy Summaries


Historia de la Filosofía

Explanation of the thought of the great philosophers; summaries, exercises... 


Historia de la Filosofía

Digital edition of the History of Philosophy by Jaime Balmes


Historia de la Filosofía

 Digital edition of the History of Philosophy by Zeferino González


Vidas, opiniones y sentencias de los filósofos más ilustres

 Complete digital edition of the work of Diogenes Laertius

Compendio de las vidas de los filósofos antiguos



Introductory Paragraph

Early Ionic Natural Philosophers

The Pythagoreans

The Eleatics


Later Natural Philosophers

General Character of the First Period in the History of Greek Philosophy

The Sophist


The Followers of Socrates

The Lesser Socratics

Plato. Life. Works

Plato. Philosophy

The Disciples of Plato

The Old Academy

Aristotle: Life and works

Aristotle: Theory of Knowledge

Aristotle: Metaphysics

Aristotle: Physics

Aristotle: Psychology

Aristotle: Practical Philosophy

Aristotle: Rhetoric and Poetic

Aristotle: Sources

Aristotle: Unity of Plato and Aristotle

Aristotle: result

The Peripatetic School

Three Leading Post-Aristotelian Schools

The Stoics and Stoicism

The Epicureans and Epicureanism

The Sceptics

The Common Ground of the Stoics, Epicureans, and Sceptics

Philosophy in Rome: Eclecticism

The Later Peripatetics

The Later Academics

The Later Stoics

General Character of the Second Period

Standpoint and Schools of the Third and Latest Period of Greek Philosophy

Jewish-Alexandrian School


The Eclectic Platonist

Neo-Platonism. Plotinus

Neo-Platonism. Porphyry. Jamblichus

Neo-Platonism. Proclus




B. C. BURT (1852-1915) - Table of contents                        




§ 20 - The Common Ground of the Stoics, Epicureans, and Sceptics


Widely distinct as the schools of which we have just been speaking may seem to be, a comparison of them with each other and with the schools preceding them brings to light a very important point of agreement among them. As distinguished from the thinkers of the first period of Greek philosophy, the period of the nature-philosophers, these three schools, together with Plato and Aristotle, have their principle in the subjective (mind) instead of the objective (nature). 

But with Plato and Aristotle, the subjective embraces positively the objective in its sway; with the later schools the subjective stands in a somewhat doubtful relation to the objective, preserving a quasi-independence, either in the midst of the objective, as with the Stoics, or in retirement from, and a negative attitude towards, the objective, as with the Epicureans and Sceptics. A relatively higher value is placed upon the particular individual subject than had been placed upon it by Plato and Aristotle, and the universal subject has a tendency to become purely transcendent. The sources and avenues of knowledge are supposed to lie in those things which are characteristic of man as an individual, i.e., in the senses chiefly, and the highest end of conduct is seen in that which has primary, if not sole, reference to the general individual as such. The philosophy of the Stoics, the Epicureans, and the Sceptics is, in tendency, if not in actuality, the philosophy of the individual as such determining itself: it is Socraticism developed on its narrower side and is the most advanced stage then yet reached by philosophy in this direction. In Scepticism the pure abstract individual is hardly distinguishable from the abstract universal, and Scepticism is therefore at the very threshold of a philosophy of self-determination. In Stoicism and Epicureanism the practical renunciation of all outside the individual self is incomplete. They are, therefore, slightly less advanced stages of the thought that constitutes the essence of Scepticism. In the stress laid by all these schools upon the individual, lies their strength as well as their weakness. But they only implicitly posited the individual as the universal.



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