BODY.—(1) Material existence, whether organised or unorganised; (2) organised
material being, in contrast with unorganised matter. Body is commonly the
animated structure constituted by the correlation of muscular and nerve systems,
in its higher forms, built upon the substratum of skeleton.
1. Spinoza uses the word in the most extended
Body we understand a certain measure or quantity, having length,
breadth, and thickness, and bounded by a definite outline" (Ethics,
p. I. prop, XV., Scholium). With this must be taken the fact that,
according to Spinoza, God is res extensa.
Locke says:—"The primary ideas we have peculiar to
body, as contradistinguished to spirit, are the cohesion of
solid and consequently separable parts, and a power of communicating
motion by impulse (Essay, bk. II. ch. XXIII.).
"A Body, according to the received doctrine of modern metaphysicians, may be
defined the external cause to which we
ascribe our sensations... The sensations are all of which
I am directly conscious; but I consider them as produced by something, not only
existing independently of my will, but external to my bodily organs and to my
mind. This external
something I call a Body" (J. S. Mill, Logic, bk. I. ch. III. sec. 7).
2. The more restricted meaning is that involved in the whole range of discussion
concerned with the relations of "Mind and Body" (Carpenter, Mental Physiology;
Bain, Mind and Body; Maudsley, Body and Mind and Physiology of Mind; Calderwood,
Relations of Mind and Brain).